Background Malaria caused by is still a public health problem in

Background Malaria caused by is still a public health problem in the Republic of Korea (ROK) particularly regarding the recent re-emergence of this malarial species near the demilitarized zone in northwestern Paju City Gyeonggi-do Province. using a PCR-based assay and pyrosequencing technology. Results The results from PHA-665752 hybridization experiments and molecular investigations revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene was introgressed from into progenies obtained from consecutive repeated backcrosses in both directions i.e. F2-11 progeny [(x x and through consecutive repeated backcrosses under laboratory conditions. This new body of knowledge will be emphasized in reliable promising strategies in order to replace the population of as a high potential vector for oxidase subunit I Introgression Background Up until now at least 26 species members of the group have been reported and their distribution has extended widely from Europe to East and Southeast Asia including some of the off-lying islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans [1]. Some species of the Hyrcanus Group are accepted as important vectors in transmitting human diseases e.g. malaria (and and has long been incriminated as the most dominant and important natural vector of as a natural vector of vivax malaria transmission in the ROK. Consequently the implication of other species i.e. and as possible natural vectors of vivax malaria in the ROK has been proposed extensively [8 9 even though the latter species is thought to have a small population [7]. Remarkably strain from China has been incriminated recently as an efficient vector of and (= C) and (= D) [24] and and (a high potential vector for (a low potential vector for and 1 hybrid female between PHA-665752 and and and and were established successfully using the methods of [28]. An F1-progeny of each iso-female line was used for species identification following the keys of [29] as well as a molecular assay [30]. Then one iso-female line of each species with molecular identification of both nuclear (ITS2) and mitochondrial (COI) genes were well matched with those in the PHA-665752 GenBank nucleotide sequence database and selected i.e. F0-1 (SF0-1) and F0-1 (KF0-1). These iso-female lines have been maintained in colonies in the laboratory at Chiang Mai University for more than 10 consecutive generations and used for hybridization experiments and comparative DNA sequence analyses. Hybridization experiments Hybridization experiments (reciprocal and back crosses and repeated backcross progenies) between and were performed by using virgin females and males and following the techniques PHA-665752 previously reported by [31]. Post-mating reproductive isolation was recorded using the criteria of low viability (hatchability survival pupation and emergence) adult sex distortion and abnormal morphology of the reproductive system. PCR identification dideoxy sequencing and phylogenetic analysis DNA was extracted individually from 60 mosquitoes using the RED Extract-N-Amp? Tissue PCR kit (Sigma-Aldrich Spruce Street SL) as shown in Table?1. PHA-665752 Primers for the amplification of ITS2 and COI regions followed a previous report by [30]. The ITS2 region of the rDNA was amplified using the ITS2 Forward and ANO 28S-20 primers [30 32 The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified using the LCO1490 (5′-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3′) and HCO2198 (5′-TAA ACT TCA GGG TGA CCA AAA AAT CA-3′) primers of [33]. PCR reaction was carried out in a total volume Rabbit Polyclonal to MASTL. of 25?μl containing 10 pM of each primer; and 2.5?μl of 10X buffer containing 50?mM KCl 10 Tris-HCI 0.1% Triton?X 100 supplemented with 1.5?mM MgCl2 (Promega USA) 200 of each dNTP (GeneCraft Germany) 0.5 of DNA polymerase (Promega USA) and 10-100?pg of genomic DNA. The amplification profile comprised initial denaturation at 94°C for 3?min with 30 cycles at 94°C for 30?sec 55 for 30?sec and 72°C for 2?min and a final extension at 72°C for 7?min. The PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Finally the purified PCR products were subjected to sequencing in an ABI PRISM 3700 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems Foster City CA) using a Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit (Applied Biosystems). The sequence data obtained were deposited in the GenBank nucleotide sequence database (Table?1). The newly.