reported that CTCs were recognized in patients with various types of

reported that CTCs were recognized in patients with various types of carcinomas, including gastrointestinal cancers, even though median quantity of CTCs in gastrointestinal carcinomas was relatively low 14. high operator-dependence. The overall level of sensitivity of standard cytology for malignant ascites is definitely 57%C67% 16, and the level of sensitivity for peritoneal carcinomatosis is definitely 96.7%, while it is much lower (6.7%C13.3%) in ascites due to hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastases, or chylous ascites with lymphoma 17. To establish an accurate analysis and study of tumor cells, immunocytochemistry and further genetic and molecular techniques have been proposed, such as fluorescent hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and PCR-based techniques. However, most results are qualitative, even though quantitative results might be relevant, particularly for the follow-up of either local or general therapies. Previous studies 6, 10C 12, 14, 15 have shown that CellSearch ? technology has shown its advantages in the detection of CTCs in peripheral blood, showing that it can achieve accurate analysis as well as molecular analysis at the same time. To our knowledge, no previous study has reported the use of this technology for the detection of tumor cells in ascitic fluid samples. We have recently documented a new method to determine and quantify malignant cells in the CSF using the CellSearch ? technology 7, 8, suggesting its potential usefulness for follow-ups and treatment evaluations with malignancy individuals. As Paclitaxel distributor described here, this fresh method makes it also possible to detect Paclitaxel distributor and quantify the presence of tumor cells, either isolated or connected as microclusters in ascitic fluid, which in some studies are recognized as a signature of malignant metastases 18, 19. Further to the description of the medical power of CellSearch ? technology in ascitic fluid analysis, our findings raise the issue of additional potential applications. First, it may help diagnose malignancy metastases with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. Second, an additional antibody can be added during the detection of tumor cells from the CellSearch ? technology, allowing for a further biological characterization of tumor cells. Third, EpCAM+ cells can be purified by using the CTC Profile kit ?, making them available for a variety of applications in order to characterize their genes and/or protein expression profiles, therefore providing knowledge about biological aspects of human being solid tumors 20. This might become particularly useful in the recognition of restorative focuses on and resistance mechanisms. The case presented here confirmed the hematogenous dissemination of esophageal malignancy by the detection of CTCs in the individuals peripheral blood, and is the 1st report concerning the quantification of a much higher weight of tumor cells in an ascitic sample. This suggests that tumor cells in ascites can be studied AMPKa2 with the CellSearch ? technology, with a great potential in individuals analysis, prognosis and in the understanding of malignancy biology. We propose to designate these cells in the ascitic sample as ETC for Effusion Tumor Cells. Consent Written educated consent for publication of Paclitaxel distributor medical details was from the individuals spouse. Acknowledgements The authors are thankful to Pierre Olivier for the PET/CT Check out picture and Fran? ois Plenat for his encouragement and support. Notes v1; ref status: indexed Funding Statement Qian Tu and Huili Cai are supported from the China Scholarship Council. Nancytomique has been funded by French Ministry of Study, Ligue Contre le Malignancy, CHU Nancy and FEDER. The malignancy projects were supported by Regional Lorraine Malignancy research projects. em The funders experienced no part in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. /em .