Anxiety disorders are the most common of all psychiatric conditions (Kessler

Anxiety disorders are the most common of all psychiatric conditions (Kessler et al. 2004; Uguz et al. 2010; Zar et al. 2002). With the exception of specific phobia ABT-378 which ABT-378 typically does not interfere with a woman’s day-to-day functioning generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is ABT-378 the most prevalent of the panic disorders among pregnant women with reported rates up to 10.5% (Adewuya et al. 2006). In addition to panic that matches diagnostic criteria for a disorder an even greater proportion of pregnant women experience sub-threshold yet clinically relevant levels of panic (Andersson et al. 2006; Faisal-Cury and Menezes 2007; Lee et al. 2007; Heron et al. 2004). Several studies indicate rates of panic symptoms may be higher during pregnancy than in the postpartum period (Evans et al. 2001; Goodman and Tyer-Viola 2010; Heron et al. 2004; Lee et al. 2007) and may be more common during pregnancy than major depression (Lee et al. 2007). Comorbidity between perinatal panic and depression is definitely high (Grigoriadis et al. 2011) however panic also happens without depression and many women may encounter more than one anxiety disorder concurrently (Kroenke et al. 2007). You will find many reasons why pregnancy may contribute to vulnerability to improved panic; these include physiological and hormonal changes physical distress improved stress uncertainty fear regarding the possibility of pregnancy and birth complications concerns for health of self and baby significant existence changes and exacerbation or recurrence of pre-existing psychiatric disturbance (Wenzel 2011). Maternal panic during pregnancy is associated with bad consequences for mothers and children including improved pregnancy-related symptoms (e.g. nausea and vomiting) higher alcohol and tobacco use greater quantity of medical appointments obstetric complications shorter fetal gestation jeopardized fetal neurodevelopment and later on child behavioral-emotional problems ABT-378 (Alder et al. 2007; ABT-378 Alvik et al. 2006; Andersson et al. 2004; Dunkel and Tanner 2012; Glover and O’Connor 2006; Goodwin et al. 2007; Hurley et al. 2005; Swallow et al. 2004; Teixeira et al. 1999; Vehicle den Bergh et al. 2005). Furthermore elevated panic during pregnancy is a major risk element for postpartum major depression (e.g. Britton 2008; Heron et al. 2004; Lee et al. 2007; Sutter-Dallay et al. 2004) ABT-378 self-employed of antenatal major depression (Coelho et al. 2011; Heron et al. 2004; Mauri et al. 2010; sutter-Dallay et al. 2004) conferring further risks for mother and child. However panic during pregnancy is frequently undetected and untreated (Alder et al. 2007; Coleman et al. 2008; Goodman and Tyer-Viola 2010). Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines are often used to treat panic however the potential risks of fetal exposure make the development of efficacious non-pharmacologic methods particularly urgent with this context (e.g. Hayes et al. 2012; Udechuku et al. 2010). Notably pregnant women are reluctant to take medication due to potential risks to the developing fetus (Goodman 2009). Psychological therapies particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) efficiently reduce panic in individuals with panic disorders (Otte 2011) yet such therapies have not been tested for treatment of panic in pregnant women. Despite a great need for effective non-pharmacological interventions study specifically dealing with treatment of panic disorders during pregnancy is seriously lacking with no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for panic in pregnancy to day. Mindfulness centered interventions (MBIs) offer a encouraging development for the treatment of panic with numerous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing panic depression and stress in medical and non-clinical populations (for evaluations observe Chiesa and Serretti 2009 & 2011; Fjorback et al. 2011; Grossman et al. 2004; Hoffman et al. 2010; Keng et al. 2011; Khoury et al. 2013; Toneatto and Ngyuen 2007). Probably one of the most founded PROCR and analyzed MBIs is definitely mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) which was developed by Kabat-Zinn (1990) in the 1980s. MBSR teaches mindfulness as a way to alleviate pain and improve physical and emotional well-being for individuals suffering from a variety of diseases and disorders. MBSR is definitely a highly organized 8-week rigorous group training in which participants are taught mindfulness practices such as a.