Foamy viruses (FV) are complex retroviruses that naturally infect most nonhuman
May 3, 2017
Foamy viruses (FV) are complex retroviruses that naturally infect most nonhuman primates (NHP) studied to day. SFV from a NWM the spider monkey none had detectable levels of viral DNA in their blood. We found that SFV isolated from three different varieties of LY2484595 NWM replicated in some but not all human being cell lines. From our data we conclude that while humans exposed to NWM SFV produce antibodies there is no evidence for long-term viral persistence. Intro Foamy viruses (FV) are unusual complex retroviruses that infect cattle horses pet cats and all varieties of nonhuman primates (NHP) examined to day (examined in research 1). Simian foamy viruses (SFV) can cause life-long infections in natural hosts without any apparent pathogenicity (2). In cell tradition models SFV can set up latent infections in some cell types and lytic infections in others resulting in cytopathic effects (CPE) that include syncytium formation (examined in research 3). In infected macaques FV DNA is found in almost all cells while FV RNA and replicating disease are limited to the superficial epithelial cells of the oral mucosa in immunocompetent animals (4 5 Consistent with the site of viral replication recognized varieties baboons macaques mandrills gorillas and chimpanzees (examined in research 7). SFV antibody-positive humans have been found in a variety of natural settings including people in Asia who live in areas with free-ranging macaques villagers in Gabon with LY2484595 known exposure to NHP and a human population of hunters in Cameroon with bites from Old World NHP (6 8 -11). SFV antibody-positive humans have also been documented in various laboratory veterinary and zoo settings (12 -17). While it is definitely obvious that SFV from a wide range of Old World NHP varieties have the ability LY2484595 to infect humans Tcf4 little is currently known about zoonotic transmission of SFV from New World Monkey (NWM) varieties. NWM are comprised of approximately 60 NHP varieties that live in the forests of Central and South America (18). A recent study reported phylogenetic analysis of SFV from 14 genera of NWM and found that similar to Old World SFV the NWM SFV coevolved with their hosts for at least 15 million years (19). Therefore NWM SFV infect their hosts and set up nonpathogenic persistent infections similar to that seen in OW NHP. Presumably zoonotic transmission of NWM SFV can occur through direct exposure to NWM saliva as seen with OW SFV. Throughout North Central and South America several varieties of NWM are kept as household pets including tamarins marmosets spider monkeys and capuchins. In these home contexts NWM and humans live in close contact with one another providing chance for SFV zoonotic transmission. Other groups of people at higher risk for zoonotic illness with New World SFV are primatologists laboratory experts and veterinarians who work directly with numerous varieties of NWM in natural laboratory or medical settings (20). A earlier study analyzed 187 individuals who reported occupational exposure to both Old and New World NHP LY2484595 varieties for zoonotic illness with OWM and ape SFV (12). However the transmission of NWM SFV to humans was not examined with this group. In this statement we describe use of Western blotting nested PCR and NWM SFV indication cell assays to specifically investigate LY2484595 New World SFV illness in monkeys and humans. Blood and plasma from NWM and from humans with reported contact with NWM were analyzed for SFV seroreactivity and viral DNA in the blood. We confirmed that SFV infect New World monkeys and set up persistent illness similar to Old World SFV. However while some humans possess detectable antibody to NWM SFV in their blood we found no evidence of viral DNA or prolonged illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS Human being subject sampling. Biological samples were collected from subjects recruited for participation with this study at the 2009 2009 conference of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) held in San Diego CA 18 to 21 September 2009. A total of 380 individuals attended the conference and 116 volunteered to participate in the study. ASP officers made conference attendees aware of the research and an area adjacent to meeting auditoriums was designated for research activities. Authors L. Jones-Engel and G. A. Engel were available in this area several hours a day time during the conference. Participants could approach the authors and ask questions about the study. Potential subjects were educated of the possible risks and benefits of participation. Those agreeing to participate authorized an informed consent form and.