Objectives: To investigate immune system cell densities in pre-neoplastic (DCIS), tumor

Objectives: To investigate immune system cell densities in pre-neoplastic (DCIS), tumor (IDC) and control breasts tissues. report elevated infiltration of lymphocytes in tumor tissues in comparison to handles (p-value 0.001). There is no difference in lymphocyte densities within different tumour sub-types (all p-values 0.05). Bottom line: Leukocytes may play a role in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. None declared. Authors Contribution BS: design and execution of the experiments, data collection, statistical analysis, manuscript writing. Takes the responsibility and is accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. MAQ: MAQ is the group leader who conceived the study, designed the experiments, data analyses, supervision of the project, manuscript writing, and review of the manuscript. TM: did review and agreed to the final manuscript. 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